Tech help 505-890-8708

   The Original Online Racing Reference.


You have found the original! Many other websites have copied many of these pages and tables, but you have found the source and most likely more and newer references than the copycats.


Below, there are several groups of pages.  The first group is the Combustion-Bytes section covering engines in race cars, hot rods, Ford Mustang, Chevy Camaro and Corvette, roadsters and just about anything with piston engines.


Section 2 is the Circle Track Suspension and Chassis Setup section and is applicable for everything from  stock car racing on pavement tracks to dirt track modifieds and just about anything else that races on circle tracks.


Section 3 is full of helpful charts and tables


Section 4 are Chassis Newsletters by Mark Ortiz.  These are packed full of great information from a well known Professional Racing Engineer.


Section 5 is The Physics of Racing Series by Brian Beckman, PhD.



These pages have many racing tips, and tech info for performance engine parts.

Engine Science

Engine Science 2 Basic induction

Camshaft Fundamentals

Cam Specs and Affects

Valve Timing and Performance

Short Block Fundamentals

Pressure Volume Diagrams

Power Goals

Tips to Change Power

How Accurate are Engine Simulators



These pages provide chassis and suspension setup info covering everything from weight transfer to suspension geometry and other items to improve you race car's handling.

Handling Trouble shooting Guide

Chassis Setup at the Rear for Cornering

Dirt Track Chassis Setup at the rear for Cornering

Front Suspension Setup for Cornering

Front Suspension and Slip Angles

Ackerman Steering and Racing Circle Tracks

Reading and Analyzing Camber Curves

Friction Circle (The Basic Theory)

Slip Angles and Handling

Toe-out and Handling

Understeer (push) in the Middle of a Corner

Weight Distribution and Cross Weight


The tables below are helpful for race car, hot rod, custom car builders, professional fabricators and home mechanics.

Bolt Torque

Brake Fluid Boiling Temperatures

Brake Pad Temperature Ranges

Chevy Block Casting Numbers

Drill Size For Tapping Threads

Drill Sizes; Numbers, Letters, and Fractions

Drill Speeds For Various Sizes and Materials

Fractions To Decimals

Heat Treatment For Steel

Jet Size and Area

Melting Temperatures of Metals

Quick Change Gear Sets

Rear End Gear Ratios

Small Block Chevy Head Casting Numbers

Standard Transmission Gear Ratios

Strength of Materials

Weight of Sheet Metal

Weight of Tubing; Round & Square

Wire and Sheet Metal Gauges





Mark Ortiz Automotive is a chassis consulting service primarily serving oval track and road racers.  Often several subjects are covered in a single month.


December 2017  - More GP midgets, Model T roll center, bind in roll 4 link axle.

November 2017  - Spring split w/ upward jacking, UK GP midgets.

October 2017  - Anti squat with torque arm & asymmetrical trailing links.

September 2017  - 3 vs 4 link & torque wedge RWD, springs bars & caster jacking.

August 2017  - Anti Squat in strut rear suspension.

July 2017  - Control arm length ratios.

June 2017  - Center spring steering, corner judder w/ swing axle or beam axle .

May 2017  - Dirt late model pinning RF & heavy axle tube.

April 2017  - Bracketing settings, 4WD high speed pavement vehicle.

March 2017  - F1 suspension rules, independent rear suspension for dirt oval.

February 2017  - Suspension design process.

December 2016  - More proportioning valves, Front/Rear weight distribution.

November 2016  - Hysteresis with brake proportioning valves.

October 2016  - Sprint car on road course.

September 2016  - Calculating spring rates, Outlaw figure 8

August 2016  - Lotus link rear, more on exit understeer in Porsches.

July 2016  - Steering effects and coilover/push rod connected to upright.

June 2016  - Anti-squat from drive shaft angularity.

May 2016  - Corner exit understeer.

April 2016  - Self piloted and remote piloting vehicles.

March 2016  - Leaning trike, Effects of widening track of existing vehicle.

February 2016  - Designing off/on road buggy.

January 2016  - Macphearson geometry and strategy for modification.

December 2015  - Impact protection...spinal compression.

November 2015  - FWD hillclimb car w twist beam rear suspension.

October 2015  - Brake calculation.

September 2015  - Sign convention of camber gain, More on trikes, Design & analysis                               methodology.

August 2015  - Camber gain/recovery and design of tricyles.

July 2015  - Off the beaten path or paved one.

June 2015  - Nismo brakes, Mumford axle lateral linkage, Differentials for FSAE.

May 2015  - Logic of Nissan Nismo

April 2015  - Weight transfer fundamentals, weight transfer w/ arb vs. springs.

March 2015  -Offset front engine for road racing, Revised lower A frame Lotus 7

                      rear suspension, Coping w/ tighting turns in autocross.

February 2015  - Scrub radius, Offset control arms w/ offset engine, Big wheels.

January 2015  - Speedy & public trials, Upright geometry and related considerations.

December 2014  - Scale effects, FSAE student ideas.

November 2014  - Spindle inclination slpit, Canceling driveshaft torque.

October 2014  - Size/performance tradeoff in dampers.

September 2014  - Diffusers live axles & Mumford link.

August 2014  -Mumford link, FARB reduced understeer, General road race set up

                       Push rod just at rear.

July 2014  - Pin lead/trail steering geo, FRIC suspension ban.

June 2014  - Third spring configurations.

May 2014  - Lateral CG & load transfer, Raised links on live axle.

April 2014  - Double wishbone vs strut suspension, Rear caster.

March 2014  - Highly modified FWD car on sticky tires.

February 2014  - Upper link geometry to cancel roll torque, Stagger & anti-squat.

January 2014  - Suspension Interconnection.

December 2013  - Powerslide Dynamics, Anti-Lift in Front-Drive car.

November 2013  - Supermodified rear ends.

October 2013  - Inertia tire damping.

September 2013  - Camber change due to compliance, driveline offset w/ live axle.

August 2013  - Off road suspension.

July 2013  - Effects of damping on load transfer.

June 2013  - Similar cars except different track widths.

May 2013  - Roll Thrust.

April 2013  - Do most cars have higher R roll ctr than F, Front pushrod on upright.

March 2013  - Angular roll stiffness in special cases.

February 2013  - Loose in sweeper tight in tight turns.

January 2013  - Small load transfer Delta Wing car, US tight turn OS high speed turn

December 2012  - Unequal half shaft length, Beam axle roll center

November 2012  - Frame torsional stiffness, Live rear axle suspension design

October 2012  - Rear Steer and Hiking (dirt track)

September 2012  -Static deflection in freq calcs, Theory of traction on dirt.

August 2012  -Gas spring force & rate in shocks.

July 2012  -Front percent & turn in, Adjust rool resistance w/ geometry & bars.

June 2012  -Sim programs & tire data, Roll Center beam axles.

May 2012  -F1 & anti-dive, Upper control arm plane on struts, 3 link & DS torque.

April 2012  -Anti-dive idea, U joint angularity and handling.

March 2012  -More active Anti-dive,control arm forces during cornering.

February 2012  -Anti-dive and the Lotus reactive ride height system.

January 2012  -Equal wheel rate R&L or equal freq, 2 wheeler weight shift.

December 2011  -More/less anti-squat to fix wheel spin/ rear tire wear.

November 2011  -1st gen RX7 4 link, unified theory of suspension setup.

October 2011  -The Deltawing Car.

September 2011  -Anti-roll bars on FVs, general advice on setting dampers.

August 2011  -Toe, Ackerman, cornering force and related puzzlements.

July 2011  -Mumford linkage, toe-out for turn in.

June 2011  -Caster effects on scrub radius, camber gain recommendations.

May 2011  -Why use swaybars at all.

April 2011  -Why more negative camber at front than rear.

March 2011  -Follow up to Feb ARB.

February 2011  -Swaybar / spring rate equivalency,  wheel rate for damper calcs.

January 2011  -Coil bind and bump stop set ups in stock cars

December 2010  -Hybrid Semi-Independent suspension

November 2010  -High, low speed balance and torque arm

October 2010  -Roll Center Theory

September 2010  -When one is a very small animal: considering an RC car

August 2010  -When lots of front roll stiffness helps and when it doesn't

July 2010  -Tuning transient behavior FWD autocross car

June 2010  -Torsion bar tube hgt, twin I beam susp, tire size & weight dist

May 2010  -Selecting rear end ratios, torque tube front engine w/ IRS

April 2010  -Banked turn puzzle, reverse-cant rear leaf springs

March 2010  -Rocker suspension, De Dion design, Lateral location of live axle

February 2010  -Sprinter wheel spacing, effects of droop limiting

January 2010  -Ride hgt vs ARB tuning, roll ctr & anti lift in 4 link, measuring grip

December 2009  -Wheels tilting into turn

November 2009  -Launch drag car on hot slick track

October 2009  -Longitudnial anti in independent suspension w/ drop gears

September 2009  -Leading and trailing wheels for oval track

August 2009  - Chasing a push

July 2009  - The unsprung component in load transfer

May/June 2009  - The anti controversy - explanation of geometric anti- effects

April 2009  - 2009 F1 suspension, pull rod F1, rate numbers on torsion bars

March 2009  - Trailing arm suspension, ride & roll rate rates monoshock suspension

February 2009  -More on camber gain and camber recovery

January 2009  - Damping ratio

December 2008  -  AWD front/rear torque split, is there too big tires

November 2008  - Yaw moment front wheel drive, turn-in on slippery surface

October 2008  - Differentials and yaw control

September 2008  - Monoshocks, Z-bars, stock cars with bump rubbers

August 2008  - Dirt late model tricks on asphalt, Porsche 993 rear suspension

July 2008  - Front to rear track relationship

June 2008  - Camber gain and recovery, gyros for roll & pitch stabilization

May 2008  - 60s Mustang prototype rear suspension, really quick steering

April 2008  - Late Corvair rear suspension

March 2008  - Oval track cars with 3 right wheels and 1 left

January/February 2008  - 6 and 8 wheel cars

December 2007  - Ackerman effect

November 2007  - Handling different turns (road course), camber for radial & bias

October 2007  - Shaker rig use

September 2007  - Drop-limited rear suspensions, roll center Satchell link suspension

August 2007  - Lifting a wheel, hollow vs solid anti-roll bars

July 2007  - More zero droop setups and spring split, high or low Panhard bars

June 2007  - Triangulated 4link, large vs small tire & wheel diameter

May 2007  - Roll axis road/hillclimb car, rear axle rotation & roll steer

April 2007  - Roll steer and anti-squat/anti-lift in strut suspension

March 2007  - Diamond car layout

February 2007  - Driveshaft joints vs rubber doughnuts, zero droop setups

January 2007  -Tall vs short sidewalls, brake distance, brake torque, tire traction

December 2006  -Coil-binding setups stock cars, falling-force shocks

November 2006  -Stiff rebound damping

October 2006  -Roll center & camber properties of twist beam & related suspensions

September 2006  -Roll center trailing arms front suspension, roll axis & analytical

August 2006  -Effects of Panhard bar fore-aft location, slope and offset

July 2006  -Beam Axle front suspension pros, cons, and design issues.

June 2006  -Effects of spring rate & damper settings during cornering

May 2006  -Rear percentage or polar moment

March 2006  -Worm gear vs. clutch pack differentials

February 2006  -Roll axis inclination

Janaury 2006  -Tires in the snow

December/November 2005  -Optimizing engine over drive wheels cars

September/October 2005  -Load transfer case with added rear ride compression

July/August 2005  -Dynamics of three wheeled vehicles

June/May 2005  -Can oval track cars have too much left percentage

March/April 2005  -Finer points of anti roll bars on stock cars

January/February 2005  -Steering axis inclination & scrub radius

December 2004  -Roll center below ground, roll moments from lateral anti

Sept/Oct/Nov 2004  -Tire sensitivity trail braking, wide tires better?, weight dist vs yaw inertia, preload in monoshock suspension, why so few rear monoshocks

August 2004  -More Roll center based on lateral anti

July 2004  -Low grip setup, truck arms, high freq shock, front shocks, swaybar links

June 2004  -More F1 arm angles, lateral anti concept & roll center, clutch downshift

May 2004  -April correction, Cup tires & geometry, F1 arm angles, Arms in 4 bar rear

April 2004  -Brake caliper mounting, weight dist, spring split with big bars

March 2004  -Types of differentials and their effect on car behavior

January/February 2004  -Reverse Ackerman on ovals, Road racing setups, Independant or beam axle front suspension for ovals

December 2003  -Front drive, load transfer, 1 or 2 brakes on rear FSAE

November 2003  -Weight dist and tire size, car width vs drag

Sept/Oct 2003  -Shock research, end-of-stroke phenomena

August 2003  -Load transfer basics

July 2003  -RR spring on Cup car, pushrod ang, motion ratio, wheel rate, roll angle

April/May/Jun 2003  -Shock & spring forces and tire loading

March 2003  -Tire warmers, independent rear suspension on dirt

February 2003  -Shock research, rear wheels & traction, gyroscopic precission

January 2003  -Shocks, tire warmers, springs on triang 4-link, roll center w/ J bar

December 2002  -Ackerman, torque & power distribution with differentials

November 2002  -Push rods, pull rods, trail & steering, tire care tip

October 2002  -Effects of wheelbase, CGH and rear % on traction & corner exit

September 2002  -Bumpsteer & HP, finding CGH for car, unsprung and sprung

August 2002  -Steering geometry, rack placement, bumpsteer ackerman, HP and engine torque - acceleration and axle torque

July 2002  -Braking and downshifting technique

June 2002  -Oil applied to tires, diag % and tire stagger for road racing, narrow rear

May 2002  -suspension freq, quads on pavement, space frame or monocoque, tires

April 2002  -Quads on pavement

March 2002  -Update Cup harness installation, racing front drive cars

February 2002  -Winston Cup harness installation, spring changes working backwards, shock questions

January 2002  -Suspension natural frequencies

December 2001  -Analyzing shock traces

November 2001  -Big track wrecks, factors in spring selection

October 2001  -Balancing car with camber & tire pressure

September 2001  -Stock car safety Earnhardt report, tire data

August 2001  -Things that make spring changes work backwards

July 2001  -Chassis troubleshooting chart & 5 phases of cornering

June 2001  -Weight transfer in wing sprint cars

May 2001  -Chrome moly in stock cars, rear stagger vs cross

April 2001  -5th coil location & rate, soft wall update, soft nose cars

March 2001  -Safty issues, HANS device, soft walls

Februrary 2001  -Required frame stiffness, making ballast weights

January 2001  -Wind tunnel testing short track cars, rear caster, stacked coilovers

December 2000  -Springs, roll, and corner balance, short vs long Panhard bars

November 2000  -Suggested off-season reading

October 2000  -Checking rear axle straightness, torque arms vs pull bars

September 2000  -How to string a car for 4 wheel alignment, effects of caster

August 2000  -Shock dynamics

July 2000  -Brake failure pevement LM, polar moment of inertia

June 2000  -Rear spring split, using brake floaters

May 2000  -Rear sway bars, wheel & axle offsets, consistant handling, gear ratio & RPM



The following pages provide a scientific glimpse of racing and should be enjoyed by Engineers and a must read for all students in the FSAE program.

Intro to Physics of racing Series PhoRS

Part 1 Weight Transfer

Part 2 Keeping Your Tyres Stuck to the Ground

Part 3 Basic Calculations

Part 4 There is no such thing as Centrifugal Force

Part 5 Introduction to the Racing Line

Part 6 Speed and Horsepower

Part 7 The Traction Budget

Part 8 Simulating Car Dynamics with a Computer Program

Part 9 Straights

Part 10 Grip Angle

Part 11 Braking

Part 12 CyberCar, Every Racer's DWIM Car?

Part 13 Transients (The missing episode)

Part 14 Why Smoothness?

Part 15 Bumps in the Road

Part 16 RARS, A Simple Racing Simulator

Part 17 "Slow in, Fast out!" or, Advanced Analysis of the Racing Line

Part 18 "Slow in, Fast out!" Advanced Analysis continued

Part 19 Space, Time and Rubber

Part 20 Four-Point Statics

Part 21 The Magic Formula: Longitudinal Version

Part 22 The Magic Formula: Lateral Version

Part 23 Trail Braking

Part 24 Combination Slip

Part 25 Combination Grip

Part 26 The Driving Wheel, Chapter 1

Part 27 Four-Wheel Weight Transfer

Part 28 Hazards of Integration

Part 29 A Magical Trick


      Auto-Ware's Reference Library


 The information contained on this web site is true and accurate to the best of our  knowledge.

 Your interpretation and application of  this information is beyond our control;  therefore, we expressly disclaim any and all liability incurred from the use of this  information.


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